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Designing Accessible Websites: Ensuring your website is accessible to people with disabilities is not just good ethics – it’s the law. But how exactly do you design inclusively?
As an experienced web designer focused on accessibility and ADA compliance, I have compiled this comprehensive guide to creating accessible websites covering:
- Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) overview
- Implementing standards for permanent and situational disabilities
- Optimization for assistive technologies like screen readers
- Testing sites across various impairments
- Common accessibility pitfalls to avoid
- Improving inclusive design through copywriting
- Striking the right balance between aesthetics and utility
- Using alerts and iconography effectively
- Setting up forms and focus flows logically
- Managing complex interfaces and experiences
- Accessibility solutions beyond just compliance
Follow these best practices to make your website seamlessly usable for all visitors regardless of physical or cognitive abilities. Let’s dive in!
Learn the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
WCAG 2.1 establishes accessibility standards websites should meet categorized into 3 compliance levels from A to AAA.
Key principles include:
- Perceivable – Information is consumable in different ways
- Operable – All functionality can be accessed via interfaces
- Understandable – Content and UI are clear and logical
- Robust – Interpretable by diverse user agents and assistive technologies
Review the guidelines thoroughly to inform design.
Design For Situational and Permanent Disabilities
Consider impairments like:
- Blindness – Relying on screen readers
- Low vision – Requiring text scaling and color contrast
- Deafness – Needing closed captions for audio
- Physical motor – Navigating via voice control or switches
- Cognitive – Requiring simple interfaces and text
Build empathy through usage testing simulations.
Follow Standards for Color Contrast
Sufficient contrast between text and background enables legibility:
- Minimum 4.5:1 contrast ratio for standard text
- 3:1 for large scale text
- Avoid conveying meaning through color alone
- Enable user color theme overrides
Refer to WCAG’s contrast ratio standards.
Ensure Adequate Text Scaling
Content should reflow when text resized up to 200% without horizontal scrolling, clipping, or overlaps:
- Use relative units like REMs for scalable typography
- Expand fluid layouts through media queries
- Test scaling text in browser DevTools
This caters to low vision users dependent on resizing text.
Provide Text Alternatives For Images
Images must have descriptive alt text conveying meaning for blindness:
- Decorative images get empty alt text
- Alt text shouldn’t exceed 125 characters
- Confirm alt text via screen reader testing
- Supplement with other textual context
Alt text provides vital context images alone lack.
Structure Page Headings in Sequence
Proper page heading hierarchy and sequencing creates logical reading order:
- Use correct semantic HTML tags like <h1> to <h6>
- Ensure headings flow top-down on page visually
- No more than 1 h1, and don’t skip heading levels
- Break up walls of text with headings
Headings enable quickly grasping content structure.
Design Intuitive Focus Order
Logical tab order facilitates keyboard navigation:
- Set tabindex attributes on interactive elements
- Arrow keys should move focus up/down/left/right
- Avoid illogical or trapped focus order
- Outline focused elements visually
Keyboard access depends on sequential focus order.
Label Form Elements Clearly
Accurately convey purpose of form fields through:
- Associating labels explicitly with form inputs using “for” attribute
- Indicating required, optional, or error inputs
- Reading aloud error messages on submission
- Explaining forms thoroughly with intro text
Labels, requirements, and cues aid comprehension and completion.
Ensure Links Make Sense Out Of Context
Link text must clearly convey destination and purpose:
- Avoid generic repeats like “click here”
- Often title attributes restate context
- Identify opens in new window
- Indicate downloading of files
Self-explanatory link text improves navigation accuracy.
Caption All Audio and Video
Videos must have transcripts, and audio needs captions:
- Timed closed captions for all speech content
- Sound descriptions explaining non-speech audio
- Controls to toggle captions on/off
- Caption file formats for multimedia
This caters to both deaf and blind users through dual modalities.
Design Simple Interfaces
Minimize complexity through:
- Clean, consistent layouts
- Intuitive IA and navigation
- Short, core focused content
- Plain language over niche terms and idioms
- Progressive disclosure of advanced options
Reduce cognitive load, learning curves, and confusion.
Use ARIA Attributes for Dynamic Content
ARIA supplements semantics for complex components like:
- accordions, tabs, carousels, sliders
- modal dialogs, notifications, and windows
- dropdown and hierarchical menus
-progressbar loaders and status messages
This enhances accessibility when standard HTML is insufficient.
Follow Best Practices for Data Visualizations
Charts, graphs, diagrams require specific techniques:
- Detailed textual descriptions
- Interactive drilldown ability
- Proper table markup for associated data
- Indicating data directionality like y axis
Thorough localization and descriptions aid comprehension when visuals alone are unclear.
Ensure Accessibility Overlays Work Reliably
Third party plugins providing overlays commonly fail. Ensure:
- Keyboard focus is managed properly
- Markup isn’t severely altered causing conflicts
- Attribution preservation so allies get credit
- Rights to fix bugs if vendor is unresponsive
- Direct control and customization options
Vet solutions thoroughly to prevent introducing new barriers.
Provide Multiple Ways to Contact
Offer diverse communications channels like:
- Web chat with screen reader capability
- Click to call buttons on mobile
- Email and contact forms
- TTY number for use with teletypewriters
- Toll free phone line with relay service
This caters to varied user preferences and capabilities.
Perform Assistive Tech Audits
Test using leading screen readers like:
- JAWS on Windows
- VoiceOver on Mac and iOS
- NVDA on Windows
- TalkBack on Android
- Microsoft Narrator
Ensure a smooth experience navigating the site non-visually.
Follow an Accessibility First Design Process
Make inclusive design the default through:
- User research across demographics and abilities
- Inclusive design training for teams
- Voluntary usage of impairing tools like dark mode
- Automated accessibility testing in CI/CD
- Dedicated accessibility QA testing
- Identifying power users as site advisors
Building access in from the start prevents retrofitting after.
Balance Aesthetics and Access
Creative expression matters, but don’t sacrifice usability:
- Enable users to hide stylistic animations
- Maintain legible contrast ratios
- Avoid light text on dark backgrounds
- Add spacing between graphical links
Pursue beauty in way that doesn’t interfere with functionality.
Provide Meaningful Error Messages
Clearly explain errors and provide resolutions:
- Be specific about the exact mistake
- Use simple language avoiding technical jargon
- Read errors aloud for screen reader users
- Programmatically link fields to correlated errors
This improves self-correction and avoids frustration.
Think Beyond Minimum Compliance
While all websites must comply legally, treat true accessibility as going beyond:
- Adopt an authoritative accessibility standard like WCAG 2.1 AA
- But also apply universal design principles more broadly
- Include people with disabilities at all stages of design
- Cultivate internal advocacy and passion
Create experiences inclusive to the fullest expressions of humanity.
Approach accessibility not as a chore or requirement, but an opportunity to improve experience for all. By crafting sites accommodating diverse physical and cognitive needs, we strengthen the connective power of the internet.
With this comprehensive guide, you now have all the knowledge needed to create websites that raise inclusion and participation on the web. Here’s to the dream of experiences where no one is left struggling on the sidelines. Let’s build it!